# How the Praxis® Tests Are Scored

## Selected-response Tests

On most Praxis® tests, each selected-response question answered correctly is worth one raw point; your total raw score is the number of questions answered correctly on the full test. Selected-response questions are scored by computer. Your total raw score is then converted to a scaled score that adjusts for the difficulty of that particular edition of the test.

## Constructed-response Tests

Constructed-response questions are scored by two or more professional educators practicing in the appropriate content area. These individuals are carefully trained and supervised to assure they apply ETS scoring methods in a fair and accurate manner. Additional statistical checks are made to account for differences in difficulty across editions of a test.

Praxis constructed-response tests do not all use the same scoring procedure. There are two scoring models used for scoring Praxis tests:

• The first model requires that two scorers rate your response to each question independently. If the two ratings disagree by more than a specified amount, a third scorer rates your response.
• The second model requires that each constructed-response item be rated independently by a different scorer. Under no circumstances does your total score depend entirely on one individual scorer.

On some constructed-response tests, the ratings assigned by the scorers are simply added together to determine your total raw score. On others, the ratings are first multiplied by scoring weights, which can be different for different questions, and the weighted ratings are added to determine your total raw score. Your raw point score is then converted to a scaled score that adjusts for the difficulty of that particular edition of the test.

## Combination Scores

Some tests consist of an essay and a selected-response portion. On the Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) tests, your total raw score is simply the sum of the number of correct selected-response items and the ratings of your constructed responses. On the other tests, it is a weighted sum of scores on the selected-response and constructed-response sections. Again, the raw score is converted to a scaled score that adjusts for the difficulty of the test.

## Pretest Questions

Pretest questions are those questions that are being tried out for possible use in later editions of the test. They do not count towards your score and are not identified in order to find out how test takers respond to them under actual testing conditions. Not all tests include pretest questions.

## Interpreting Identical Scores

The adjustment for difficulty makes it possible to give the same interpretation to identical scores on different editions of the same test. For example, a reported score of 150 on the Mathematics: Content Knowledge test will reflect approximately the same level of knowledge, regardless of which edition of the test was administered.

However, identical scores on different tests do not necessarily have the same meaning. A score of 150 on the Mathematics: Content Knowledge test, for example, does not reflect the same level of knowledge as a score of 150 on the Physics: Content Knowledge test.