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Frequently Asked Questions About the Praxis® Tests

Top Frequently Asked Questions

1. How do I know which test(s) to take?

Check the State Requirements page for the state in which you are planning to become certified or contact your state department of education. Each state using the Praxis® tests sets its own testing requirements.

2. How do I register for a Praxis test?

See How to Register.

3. Where do I find information on test centers, test dates or deadlines?

See Praxis Test Dates and Locations.

4. Is there a fee for my test?

Visit the About the Tests page for information on test fees, which will vary depending on the test you are taking.

5. How do I add a test to my registration, change my test date or change my test center?

Changes can be made to your test registration up to three days in advance of your appointment. Learn how to make changes on the Change or Cancel Your Registration page.

6. What should I do if I forget my username and password?

Follow the appropriate link on the account sign-in page to view your username or create a new password.

7. Where can I find information to help me prepare for my Praxis test?

View the Prepare for a Test page for free and affordable test prep materials.

8. When will my scores be available and where can I find help understanding my scores?

Use the Score Reporting Calendar to determine when your scores will be available. View Understanding My Scores for how to interpret your scores.

9. How do I cancel my registration and receive a refund?

To learn about canceling your registration and receiving a refund, see Registration Changes.

10. How can I contact ETS about the Praxis tests?

Contact us.

About the Test

Why take the Praxis tests?

These tests are required by state departments of education and by colleges and universities to measure the academic achievement and proficiency of individuals entering or completing teacher preparation programs.

Do all states require these tests?

The Praxis tests are currently required for teacher licensure in more than 40 states and U.S. territories. These tests are also used by several professional licensing agencies and by several hundred colleges and universities. Since the Praxis tests are used to license teachers in many states, teacher candidates can test in one state and submit their scores for licensure in any other Praxis user state. See State Requirements.

How do I know which tests to take?

Visit the State Requirements page.

Where do I find information on test centers, test dates or deadlines?

See Test Dates and Locations.

How can I learn more about what's covered in each test?

Study Companions include a test overview, content topics, sample questions with rationales for the best answers and how to understand different question types. These are free and available as downloadable Adobe® Acrobat® PDF files.

Find these and other test preparation materials for the test you're taking.

What types of questions will I find on these tests?

Learn more about:

If you would like details about the types of questions you'll encounter on a specific test, download the Study Companion for the test you're taking.

Can I take a Praxis Subject Assessment before the Praxis Core test?

Yes, you can take the Praxis Subject Assessment before a Praxis Core test. Which tests you take and when they should be taken in your career depends on your state and educator preparation program. It is important to check your State Requirements and/or check with your educator preparation program before registering for any of the tests.

What is the test content based on?

For each test, a job analysis survey is conducted to determine what a representative group of teachers and teacher educators believe that a newly licensed or certified teacher should know to perform his or her job competently. Based on the results of the job analysis as well as any national disciplinary standards that may apply, an Advisory Committee of teachers and teacher educators defines the content areas that should be covered on the test. Test specifications are then created to guide the development effort.

Test development specialists and practicing teachers use this information to develop test questions. Once developed, the questions undergo a series of reviews conducted by the Advisory Committee, content experts and ETS staff to confirm that they cover the content defined in the test specifications. At every step in the test development process, ETS follows well-established industry procedures and standards designed to assure that the test measures what it is intended to measure.

What do the Praxis tests measure?

The Praxis tests measure specific content and pedagogical knowledge for beginning teaching practice. The tests don't measure skills related to an individual's disposition toward teaching or potential for success. The assessments are designed to be comprehensive and inclusive, but are limited to what can be covered in a finite number of questions and question types.

Who creates the Praxis tests?

The tests are developed by educators for educators. Advisory committees of distinguished teachers, teacher educators, key administrators and professional organizations help determine test content and review, revise and approve all questions and exercises. The Praxis tests are grounded in current research, including a comprehensive analysis of the most important tasks and skills required of beginning teachers, as well as extensive surveys to confirm test validity.

How does ETS ensure that Praxis tests are valid and fair?

ETS uses a validation process consistent with the technical guidelines in the 2014 AERA Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. View the ETS Standards for Quality and Fairness.

How are the tests updated to ensure the content remains current?

The Praxis tests are reviewed regularly. During the first phase of review, ETS conducts an analysis of relevant state and association standards and of the current test content. State licensure titles and the results of relevant job analyses are also considered. Revised test questions are then produced following the standard test development methodology. National advisory committees may also be convened to review existing test specifications and to evaluate test forms for alignment with the specifications.

At Home Testing

Can I take a Praxis test at home?

Yes, as long as you meet the following criteria:

  1. You live in the United States, a U.S. territory or Canada. Note: The ability to register for a Praxis test at home is based on the address in your Praxis account.
  2. Your test title is offered for at home testing.
  3. Your computer meets the equipment requirements for the test.
  4. You have a room that provides an acceptable environment for the test.
What test titles are available for at home testing?

View a current list of available test titles.

Is the test fee different for the at home test?

The test fee is the same. See a list of Praxis test and service fees.

What test dates and times are available?

Currently, at home appointments are available seven days a week to address the scheduling needs of candidates across the United States, its territories and Canada. Be sure to check your test time before submitting your registration; sessions are available for both a.m. and p.m. testing.

Are there accommodations for test takers with disabilities?

Yes. Accommodations of extended time, extra breaks, screen magnification and selectable colors can be requested using your Praxis account. Other accommodations available at physical testing centers can be requested through ETS Disability Services. All accommodations must be requested before you begin your registration.

If you need to confirm your accommodations have been applied to your registration, call:



Toll free for test takers in the United States, U.S. Territories (including American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and Canada

Monday–Friday, 8:30 a.m.–5 p.m. ET


How do I register for a test?

You can register online through your Praxis account, or by mail or phone. See How to Register for more information.

How do I add a test to my registration, change my test date, change my test center or test time?

To learn how to make changes to your registration, see Praxis Registration Changes.

How do I cancel my registration and receive a refund?

To learn about canceling your registration and receiving a refund, see Praxis Registration Changes.

Can I reschedule my at home test to a test center test, or vice versa?

Yes, you can do this through your Praxis account. You must do so at least three full days before your test date, or you won’t be able to reschedule.

What if I am absent from the test?

If you are absent from the test, you automatically forfeit all test fees.

How will I receive my admission ticket?

Your admission ticket will be located in your Praxis account. Tickets are not mailed. See How to Register for more information.

I received a bill after I submitted my registration. Does this mean my registration will not be processed? Will I still be allowed to test?

Although you received an invoice, you will still be registered and admitted for testing. However, your test scores will not be released until your account is paid in full.

I will need to report my test scores to my college. Do I only identify my college in the Attending Institution box on the registration form, or do I also need to include it in the Designated Score Recipients box?

In order for your scores to be reported to your college, you will need to identify your school as a score recipient on your registration form or during the registration process. The attending institution section of the registration form/process simply enables us to include information about your attending institution (the institution at which you have received relevant instruction) on your score report.

Am I required to provide my Social Security number during registration? What happens if I don't?

Some states require a social security number (SSN) to process teacher certification paperwork. Check your state's requirements to see if your state requires an SSN with your test score reports. ETS does not require your SSN for its own purposes, but will submit it to your state agency with your test results. Failure to provide your SSN could delay your state's processing of your certification application.

What if I need to make changes to the information on my record?

To make changes before a test, log in to your Praxis account.

Online Registration

How do I register online?
See How to Register Online.
What can I do through my Praxis account online?
  • Register for a test
  • Select a test center
  • Reserve a seat
  • Order test prep materials
  • Provide demographic information about yourself
  • Pay for the test
  • Select recipients for your test scores (if applicable)
  • View your order history
  • Make changes to your registration
  • Print the admission ticket for an upcoming test
  • View your scores
  • Order additional score reports
  • Update your personal information or profile
What do I need to register online?
  • A Praxis account.
  • A valid mailing address
  • A valid email address
  • An accepted form of payment (credit/debit card, eCheck or PayPal® account)

See How to Register Online.

Is there a service fee for registering online?


Which browsers are supported by the online registration system?

The online registration system supports the latest versions of the Internet Explorer®, Firefox®, Google Chrome and Safari® browsers.

Is the online registration site secure?

Yes. We use a number of techniques to secure your visit.

  • We authenticate you using the unique username and password you have provided.
  • After 30 minutes of inactivity on the site (i.e., you step away from the computer or switch to another website), the system will close your connection.
  • When we take your credit card, we use standard secure-encrypted methods to transmit your account information.
What should I do if I forget my username and/or password?

On the sign-in page, click "Forgot User Name" or "Forgot Password."

How do I reset my password?

After signing in, click the "Change Password or Security Question" link on your home page and follow the instructions.

Am I guaranteed a seat at a center if I register online?

ETS provides real-time seat assignments. You will be advised of seat availability when you select a test center. You must complete the registration process, including payment, and check out to guarantee your seat assignment.

What if I can't find a test center that still has a seat for me?

Many centers fill up quickly, so you may want to consider searching for test centers in neighboring states.

Are there any special instructions for individuals pursuing American Speech-Language-Hearing Association® (ASHA) certification?

Yes. If you are an Audiology or Speech Language Pathology test taker, you should refer to the Audiology/Speech Language Pathology Attending/Recipient Code List when selecting your attending institution and designated score recipients (if applicable) to ensure that the correct department and/or agency receives your scores.

How is my information used by the testing program?

Your biographical information is used to gather information for research purposes and to further ensure the validity and fairness of the test questions. See our Privacy and Security policy at the bottom of each page.

Why was I taken back to the sign-in page in the middle of my registration?

If you do not interact with the site for 30 minutes or more, your session may expire and you will be taken back to the sign-in page.

How long after I register online should I wait to call to confirm my registration has been received by ETS?

There is no need to call to confirm your registration. Once you have completed an online registration and checked out, your information has been received at ETS.

How do I change an error on my admission ticket?

If there is an error on your admission ticket, such as a simple misspelling, corrections may be made online through your Praxis account. For more information on other types of changes, such as changing the test date or test center, see Registration Changes.

I spelled my name incorrectly, or my name has changed. How do I correct this?

Only misspellings of your name can be corrected. Name changes will not be made. If your name has changed for any reason, including marriage, you must still present primary identification in the name under which you registered or you will not be permitted to test.

If you require further assistance, please contact Customer Service.

How do I add another test for the same test date after I have completed and exited the registration process?

To add a test, simply register for the new test the same way you registered for the previous test. There is no service fee to create a new test registration.

Preparing for the Test

Where can I find information to help me prepare for the Praxis test?

Visit Prepare for a Praxis Test for free and affordable test prep materials.

Where can I find sample questions?

Sample test questions are available in the Study Companions and Practice Tests. Find test preparation materials for the test you're taking.

Are the test preparation materials free or do I have to buy them?

Both free and priced test preparation materials are available. Find test preparation materials for the test you're taking.

What are Praxis Interactive Practice Tests (IPTs)?

The Praxis Interactive Practice Tests (IPTs) are full-length practice tests that allow you to answer one set of test questions to simulate what you will experience on the actual day of the test. Learn more about interactive practice tests.

Does ETS offer any webinars or workshops?

Yes, view the Test Preparation Webinars page to learn about upcoming webinars.

How can I organize my efforts to prepare to take the test(s)?
How can I learn more about what's covered on each test?

Praxis tests feature multiple-choice and essay questions that measure the content and pedagogical knowledge necessary for a beginning teacher. To see the specific content covered on each test, visit the Preparation Materials page, select your test from the drop-down menu and view the "Learn About Your Test" section in the Study Companion.

What resources are available to help me if I'm having difficulty passing a Praxis test?

The best preparation for taking a subject area test should be the knowledge and experience you gained through related courses taken as part of your teacher preparation program. You may benefit from reviewing your notes and textbooks from past course work, especially content that is outlined in the "Learn About Your Test" section of the Study Companion. Review your score report for information regarding specific content areas where you should focus your study efforts. You might also consider asking a mentor or professor to discuss the sample questions in the Study Companion or forming a study group with other examinees.

What is Khan Academy® Official Praxis Core Prep?

This is a free, online prep resource that helps you build the reading, writing and mathematics skills you need to succeed on the Praxis Core tests. This free resource offers diagnostic tests to better understand your strengths and weaknesses, instructional videos, personalized study plans, full-length tests and interactive sample questions. Learn more about Khan Academy official Praxis Core test prep.

Test Day

Are calculators allowed for Praxis tests?

Graphing, scientific and four-function calculators are permitted or required for some Praxis tests. Some tests have an on-screen calculator that you can use. For detailed information, see Calculator Use. In general, unless it is specifically stated that a calculator is permitted or required for a particular test, calculators may not be used.

What if I can't take the test on my scheduled date?

You can change, cancel or reschedule your registration online. You must make changes at least three days before your test date, not including the day of your test. If you do so, you may be eligible for a partial refund of your test fees. See refund policies and cancel/change policies for more information.

What can I expect on the day of my test?

Learn more about what to expect on test day, whether you’re taking the test at a test center or at home.

What does the testing platform look like?

Watch the Praxis testing demonstration (Video) to familiarize yourself with the computer testing experience prior to test day. The demonstration walks you through from logging in to exiting the test.

What identification will I need to show on test day?

View the Identification (ID) Requirements.

How do I access and print my admission ticket for a test center appointment?

Access and print your admission ticket through your Praxis account. See Before Your Test for more information.

Can I bring food to the test center?

Food and drink are not permitted in the testing room. Some test centers have storage areas or lockers where you may store personal items such as food, drink, handbags and study materials; however, not all do. The test center is not responsible for your belongings.

What am I prohibited from bringing into the test center?

See the What to Bring page for a complete list of prohibited items.

How do I prepare my testing area if I’m testing at home?

See Before Your Test Session for how to prepare your testing area.

Will I be monitored during my at home test session?

Yes. A human proctor will connect with you during the check-in process, verify your ID and monitor you throughout the entire session to ensure you are following testing procedures. The proctor assigned to monitor you could be male or female.

You will also be monitored by artificial intelligence (AI) technology to help ensure test security.

What if I need to contact or chat with the proctor during my at home test?

Speak to get their attention or use the LogMeIn chat function. It may take 30–60 seconds for the proctor to reply.

If the proctor is attempting to chat with you, the chat icon (a blue owl) will bounce up and down.

Will I have to submit a photo for my at home test?

Your photo will be taken at the beginning of your test.

Will I be recorded during my at home test?

Yes, your entire test session will be recorded.

Troubleshooting Technical Issues for At Home Tests

What if I fail the ProctorU Equipment Check?

You must resolve all issues and pass the equipment check before checking in for your test. If you can't resolve the issues yourself, contact ProctorU. Live Help Desk technicians are available to assist you.

Live Chat:
Live Chat


If you cannot resolve all issues before your test begins, your test will be cancelled. You will not receive a refund and will have to pay to reschedule the test.

What should I do if I have trouble downloading the ProctorU chat application?

See ProctorU’s instructions for resolving chat downloads.

What can I do ahead of time to prevent issues?
  • Run the ProctorU Equipment Check at the time of day you plan to test to make sure you don't have any bandwidth issues.
  • Run a final equipment check shortly before your test session starts.
  • Close all browsers and applications not needed for the test. This can help prevent bandwidth issues while you test.
  • Make sure any other devices in your household that use the internet are not running.

For additional information and troubleshooting help, visit the ProctorU Test-taker Resource Page.

What if I have a technical issue and my start time is extended?

This won't affect the amount of time you have to complete the test. The timer for your test doesn't begin until the proctor enters the password.

What if I have a technical issue during my test?

If you have a technical issue during your test that prohibits you from speaking to the proctor, notify the proctor via the LogMeIn chat function. The chat icon (a blue owl) can be found on the task bar for a PC and on the menu bar for Mac.

What if I lose internet during the test?

If you lose your internet connection momentarily, you'll automatically be reconnected to the proctor when your connection is restored. If your exam can be reopened, your proctor will do so for you.

If you can't reconnect and speak to the proctor via the LogMeIn chat function, call ProctorU at 1-855-772-8678 for assistance.


How are passing scores set and validated? Why do scores differ across states?

Before passing scores are set, each state that uses a Praxis test undertakes a validation process and sets standards. Panels of teachers and teacher educators, appointed by each state, review the tests to confirm that they are aligned with state licensing requirements. The panel members also make judgments regarding the difficulty of the questions for beginning teachers. Each state uses those judgments in setting its respective passing scores. Because each state may have slightly different licensing standards and requirements, the scores will vary from one state to another.

How do I know if I passed the test?

You will receive passing score information on your score report for the score recipients you listed when you registered. If you test in a state with automatic score reporting, you will receive passing score information for that state.

A list of states and their passing scores will be included with your score report and is available online at State Requirements.

How long will it take to receive my scores?

Official score reporting dates vary, depending on which test you took. Please see Getting Your Praxis Scores.

Can I access my scores on the Web?

Yes, via your Praxis account. This service is free of charge and replaces the mailing of a paper score report.

You'll be able to view, print and download your scores for 10 years from the score report date. We recommend that you save a copy of your score report for future reference.

How do I order additional score reports?

Find out how to order additional score reports.

Who gets a copy of my score report? Will my score report automatically be sent to the state in which I am seeking certification or licensure?

Scores are sent to you and to the institutions or agencies that you have designated on the registration form. View the list of states and territories that receive scores automatically.

If the state you test in is different from the state to which you will apply for certification, or if the state is not on the automatic score recipient list, you must list the state as a score recipient in order for a score report to be sent to the state's teacher credentialing agency.

Does the institution where I obtained my teacher training automatically receive a copy of my individual score report?

No. An institution can only receive individual score reports if (a), it has been approved by ETS as a "designated score recipient," and (b), you have selected the institution to receive a copy of your score report.

What's the difference between raw and scaled scores?

Most of the Praxis tests exist in several different editions. Different editions of the same test contain different sets of test questions conforming to predefined content and statistical specifications. These different editions are commonly called forms. To ensure that scores obtained from different forms of the same test are comparable, raw scores are converted to scaled scores that carry the same meaning regardless of which form was administered. Scaled scores are used to determine whether test takers have passed the test.

There is no way to guarantee that the questions on all editions of the test will have the same precise degree of difficulty. Therefore, to avoid penalizing test takers who answer more difficult questions, the initial scores are adjusted for difficulty by using a statistical process known as equating.

To avoid confusion between the adjusted and unadjusted scores, ETS reports the adjusted scores on a score scale that makes them clearly different from the unadjusted scores.

Unadjusted scores, which are simply the number of questions answered correctly, are called "raw scores."

Adjusted scores, which are equated to the scale we use for reporting the scores, are called "scaled scores." For each edition of the Praxis tests, a "raw-to-scale conversion table" is used to translate raw scores to scaled scores. The easier the questions are on a test edition, the more questions must be answered correctly to earn a given scaled score.