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Praxis® Subject Assessments Content and Structure

The Praxis® Subject Assessments consist of these groups of tests:

  • Subject Assessments — Measure general and subject-specific teaching skills and knowledge. Tests include both selected-response and constructed-response (essay) questions.
  • Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) Tests — Measure your general pedagogical knowledge at one of four grade level ranges: Early Childhood, K–6, 5–9 and 7–12. These tests feature selected-response questions and short constructed-response prompts based on information provided in case studies.

Test Structure

Praxis Subject Assessments range from one hour to four hours long and include selected-response questions, essay or constructed-response questions, or a combination of both question types. The number of questions and length of each test varies depending on the test. Review the appropriate Study Companion for details on test structure and length.

How Test Questions Are Created

Educators, faculty of teacher preparation programs and disciplinary specialists prepare Praxis Subject Assessments questions. The developers and reviewers follow rigorous, standardized procedures to ensure that test material reflects the skills being tested and meets high quality assessment standards. Each question is reviewed by ETS experts as well as content advisory groups, who are also engaged in establishing guidelines and standards for what the tests should measure.

After test questions have been reviewed and revised, they are administered in trial situations and assembled into tests. Tests are then reviewed according to ETS procedures to ensure that all tests are free of cultural bias. Statistical analyses of individual questions ensure that all items provide appropriate measurement information.